Overview of SOTIF

SOTIF is the safety of the intended functionality which is a shorthand for the new ISO 21448:2022 international standard. SOTIF is related to the reasonably foreseeable misuse of the function by the driver or to the functional insufficiencies or performance limitations of vehicle sub-systems. There are different methods for the qualitative analysis of the functional insufficiencies to ensure SOTIF for new E/E automotive systems.

The rapid development of technology for autonomous vehicles has put the automakers in a challenging position- to rethink safety standards from several perspectives. The future is bright for self-driving-vehicles, yet the technology that utilizes complex and driverless vehicles can be fatal, despite numerous safety checks. Applying the SOTIF standard to autonomous vehicles will greatly reduce such risks, as SOTIF is expected to be a widely accepted standard by the industry.

Safety of the Intended Function Application

Safety of the Intended Function or SOTIF studies the performance limitations or insufficient situational awareness with or without reasonably foreseeable misuse. ISO 26262 covers only the functional safety aspects due to malfunctions in systems and does not include safety hazards that take place without system failures. Thus the need to implement ISO 21448:2022 .

SOTIF addresses hazards resulting from functional insufficiencies or performance limitations in some vehicle sub-systems, from operational situations involving other vehicles, and from reasonably foreseeable misuse by persons.

Companies that implement or are ready to implement SOTIF should know to:

Implementation Activities

  • Identify the purpose and scope of ISO 21448:2022
  • Describe the framework for the ISO 21448:2022
  • Understand the key aspects of SOTIF
  • Enumerate the safety requirements that support the design and development activities for SOTIF
  • Describe the impact of SOTIF on vehicle production and operational situations Describe Foreseeable Misuse Analysis
  • Understand the Functional Insufficiencies Analysis and related Safety Goals and Functional Concept
  • Describe Verification and Validation Strategies to argue a complete safety case


The SOTIF Standard addresses the safety of autonomous vehicles including Artificial Intelligence(AI) and Machine Learning (ML) concepts that equally contribute to safe-driverless vehicles.

The standard assists in the design and verification of the systems that impact safety even in vehicles without component failures. SOTIF studies the performance limitations or insufficient situational awareness with or without reasonably foreseeable misuse and also hazards that arise in operational situations involving other vehicles.

This standard serves as a new approach to systematic failure analysis for the developers of autonomous vehicles. Though Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning concepts are contributing to the development of autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicles, there are still safety challenges addressed by SOTIF which need to be overcome for the automakers. Using SOTIF in the automotive industry helps at the design stage to develop a safe product including the definition of verification and validation measures. Applying these measures helps you achieve safety in situations where the system does not exhibit any malfunctions.

SOTIF Mission Accomplished: The New International Standard ISO 21448


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SOTIF Case Study : Building a Safe Automated Driving System Functionality
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SOTIF stands for "Safety of the Intended Functionality." It is a standard, ISO 21448, that focuses on addressing potential hazards caused by the failure of intended vehicle functions due primarily to performance insufficiencies or performance limitations.

Functional safety (e.g., ISO 26262) focuses on mitigating risks associated with system failures, SOTIF addresses hazards arising from the failure of the intended functionality, even when the system operates correctly.

Advantages include enhanced safety, reduced risk of hazards, improved public trust, compliance with industry standards and regulations, and the ability to demonstrate adherence to SOTIF requirements.

ISO 21448 SOTIF is critical because it helps identify and mitigate potential hazards that may arise from the intended functionality of these advanced dirving assistnace systems, even when they operate correctly. ISO 21448 goes beyond ADAS and addresses SOTIF hazards for the entire suite of SAE automation levels L1 through L5.

The primary objectives are to assess the organization's current state of SOTIF compliance, identify areas where improvements are needed, and create a roadmap for achieving full compliance with ISO 21448.