Capability Maturity Model ( CMM )
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Capability Maturity Model
Capability Maturity Model ( CMM )


What is CMM?

A Capability Maturity Model defines the characteristics of a mature, capable process. It identifies the practices that are basic to implementing effective processes and addresses advanced practices. It also assigns to those practices associated maturity levels ranging from unrepeatable to mature. Typically a path through the various practices is recommended for achieving higher levels of maturity and improving an organization's processes. The implementation of CMM helps an organization in achieving improved quality of the products, processes and systems, improvement in productivity, and reduced cycle time for projects. The software community has developed the SW-CMM with leadership from the Safety Equipment Institute (SEI). The SEI Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) describes a framework that organizations can use to determine their ability to develop and maintain software; it is a model for organizational improvement. The SW-CMM is based on the process management work of W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, and Phillip B. Crosby, and can be applied by organizations to improve their software process through a software process assessment. The SW-CMM also can be applied by acquisition organizations to select qualified software vendors via contractor evaluations. CMM directs software organizations to gain control of their development and maintenance software processes while simultaneously evolving toward software engineering and management excellence. It was designed to guide software organizations in selecting process improvement strategies with current process maturity in mind, and identify the few issues most critical to software quality and process improvement.

The SW-CMM, SE-CMM, and IPD-CMM provide the basis for the initial CMM Integration SM (CMMISM) product suite. The direction is to integrate the development characteristics and delivery methods of these and future capability models (CMs), which will enable users to reduce the cost of performing assessments and implementing improvements. The initial CMM Integration Product Suite includes a framework for generating CMMISM products to meet business objectives/mission needs, and a set of CMMI products produced by the framework. The framework includes the common elements and best features of the current models, as well as rules and methods for generating the CMMI products. Discipline-specific elements (e.g., software, systems engineering) of the CMMI Product Suite will provide the user with the ability to select elements applicable to specific situations.

CMM is organized into five maturity levels:

  1. Level 1-level 2 Disciplined process
    Initial - the software process is characterized as ad hoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few processes are defined, and success depends on individual effort and heroics.
  2. Level 2- level 3- Standardized and consistent process
    Repeatable - basic project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes on projects with similar applications.
  3. Level 3-level 4 Predictable process
    Defined - both management and engineering activities are documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard software process for the organization. All projects use an approved, tailored version of the organization's standard software process for developing and maintaining software.
  4. Level 4 -level 5 Continuously improving process
    Managed - detailed measures of the software process and product quality are collected. Both the software process and products are quantitatively understood and controlled.
  5. Optimizing - Continuous process improvement is enabled by quantitative feedback from the process and from piloting innovative ideas and technologies. Predictability, effectiveness, and control of an organization's software processes generally improve as the organization moves through these five levels. While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief.

Except for Level 1, each maturity level is broken down into several key process areas that indicate where an organization should focus to improve its software process. The key process areas at Level 2 focus on the software project's concerns related to establishing basic project management controls. They are Requirements Management, Software Project Planning, Software Project Tracking and Oversight, Software Subcontract Management, Software Quality Assurance, and Software Configuration Management. The key process areas at Level 3 address both project and organizational issues, as the organization establishes an infrastructure that institutionalizes effective software engineering and management processes across all projects. They are Organization Process Focus, Organization Process Definition, Training Program, Integrated Software Management, Software Product Engineering, Inter-group Coordination, and Peer Reviews. The key process areas at Level 4 focus on establishing a quantitative understanding of both the software process and the software work products being built. They are Quantitative Process Management and Software Quality Management. The key process areas at Level 5 cover the issues that the organization and the projects must address to implement continual, measurable software process improvement. They are Defect Prevention, Technology Change Management, and Process Change Management.

Each key process area is described in terms of the key practices that contribute to satisfying its goals. The key practices describe the infrastructure and activities that contribute to the effective implementation and institutionalization of the key process area. The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard software process for the organization. All projects will use an approved, tailored version of the organization's standard software process for developing and maintaining software.

CMMI

The purpose of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM) is to provide guidance for improving the organization's processes and the ability to manage the development, acquisition, and maintenance of products and services. The CMMI provides a process improvement framework that helps integrate multiple disciplines with the main focus on software engineering and systems engineering. Like the SW-CMM, the CMMI includes 5 Levels to designate process maturity. Level 5, optimizing, is the highest of the 5 levels. Organizations achieving CMMI Level 5 are continuously evaluating, improving, and deploying process and technology. This model includes systems engineering, software engineering, Integrated Product and Process Development, and supplier sourcing.

The Promise of CMMI

Capability Maturity Model-Integration (CMMISM) is for projects or organizations that want to do the following:

  • Improve delivery of promised performance, cost, and schedule.
  • Collaborate with external stakeholders and manage their expectations.
  • Provide competitive world-class products and services.
  • Implement an integrated, enterprise business and engineering perspective.
  • Use common, integrated, and improving processes for systems and software.
  • Implement proactive program management techniques.
  • Develop project leaders who look ahead and not over their shoulder.
  • Develop a staff that uses best practices to cope with changing development, technology, and customer environments.
  • Enable staff members to move between projects and still use the same processes.
  • Create and improve processes so that they adapt to a changing business environment.
  • CMMI is a process-improvement model that provides a set of best practices that address productivity, performance, costs, and stakeholder satisfaction

Why should you go for CMMI?

  • Improved Product and Process quality
  • Reduction of variation and increased efficiency
  • Worldwide Acceptance
  • Designed to compliment the latest ISO standards
  • Connects Quality Management system to business processes

Background of the CMMI Project

  • Sponsored by The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the National Defense Industrial Association
  • Capitalizes on the similarities of other process improvement models; eliminates differences that increase effort and expense of models
  • Collaborative endeavor from-
    • Industry
    • Government
    • Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Over 100 people and 50 organizations involved

Tailored for Your Organization

CMMI is designed to be tailored to the goals set by your business environment, unlike many previous process improvement models. The built-in flexibility of the CMMI provides you the opportunity to:

  • Fully align process improvement with your business goals
  • Choose areas providing the biggest "bang for the buck"
  • Develop specialized areas to meet your specific business needs
  • Promote maximum flexibility and efficiency in your process improvement approach
  • Support an enterprise perspective across all business functions

Compatibility

The CMMI is compatible with a wide variety of capability and process improvement frameworks as shown in the following table:

CMMI Concept

ISO 9001/ 2000

ISO 10006

IEEE 1220

Organizational Process Focus

Less guidance/different focus

Out of scope

Out of scope

Organizational Process Definition

Less guidance/different focus

Out of scope

Out of scope

Organizational Training

Less guidance

Out of scope

Out of scope

Organizational Process Performance

Less guidance

Out of scope

Out of scope

Organizational Innovation & Deployment

Out of scope

Out of scope

Out of scope

Project Planning

Different focus - planning of QMS and planning of product

More guidance/ different focus--heavy quality focus

Less guidance -- for general projectMore guidance -- for system engineering specific areas

Project Monitoring & Control Different focus.

Different focus--not systems oriented

Different focus--not systems oriented

Less guidance -- for general project. More guidance -- for system engineering specific areas

Supplier Agreement Management

More guidance for some subtopics;Different focus

Different focus

Out of scope

Integrated Project Management for IPPD

Minimal guidance

Less guidance (but more than most non-CMM docs!!)

Less guidance

Risk Management

Out of scope

Less guidance, but most of the major issues are addressed

Less guidance

Integrated Teaming

Out of scope

Less guidance

Less guidance

Quantitative Project Management

Less guidance

Out of scope

Out of scope

Requirements Development

Minimal guidance

Out of scope

More guidance

Requirements Management

Less guidance

Less guidance

Less guidance

Technical Solution

Minimal guidance

Out of scope

More guidance

Product Integration

Minimal guidance

Out of scope

Less guidance

Verification

Less guidance

Out of scope

Less guidance

Validation

Minimal guidance

Out of scope

Less guidance

Configuration Management

Less guidance

Out of scope

Less guidance

Process and Product Quality

Assurance

More guidance

Out of scope

Measurement and Analysis

Less guidance

Less guidance

Less guidance

Organizational Environment for Integration

Out of scope

Out of scope

Out of scope

Decision Analysis and Resolution

Out of scope

Out of scope

Similar

Causal Analysis and Resolution

Different focus

Out of scope

Out of scope

Why should you choose Omnex?

  • Omnex pioneered the business process approach for quality systems implementation with more than 20,000 companies worldwide.
  • Omnex was involved in the writing of QOS, QS-9000, SAC 9000, and TS 16949
  • The Omnex principals have delivered seminars to ISOTC/176 as well.
  • Maximum value-added implementations for maximum cost-savings and return on investment.
  • Customized quality improvement software solutions.
  • The Omnex methodology of implementing quality systems has been recognized for its
    • Superior quality
    • Cost savings
    • Process fine-tuning
    • Documentation reduction
    • Business improvements
    • Unmatched set of value-added tool

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